The Impact of Columbus’ Discovery. Part II

Colonization

The explorer’s discovery of the native land with arable opportunities affected the locals by being governed by the foreign authorities. Many students ask ‘can someone write my essay‘ about colonization many times a day. And it is a fact. Europe is one continent that felt this era as Spanish monarchy began taking lands, farming and establishing foreign administration on the natives. In fact, after the discovery of new lands, Columbus requested the government of Spanish to establish a colony so as to benefit from the slave trade and agriculture. In that respect, the Africans and Native Americans were put into slavery to supply much needed labor.

Economic Growth

There was arable land with ample amount of vast opportunities for agriculture, and this stimulated profitable agricultural endeavors that increased wealth of immigrant in America. The rich individuals could buy slaves from Spanish and use them to expand their farming activities.

Cultural Exchange

Columbus provided an opportunity for People longing for the vast prospects in the new land. The result was displacement of red Indians as European, Asian, and African immigrants completely changed the lifestyles of New America. Another consequence of Columbus’ discovery was the introduction of a new culture in America influenced by intermarriage between the Europeans and the red Indians.

 Columbian Exchange

The global exchange of goods, people, plants, and diseases besides ideas constituted Columbian exchange. Christopher Columbus journey exposed the new world in his voyage job.

With time as the Spanish empire and European interest in America expanded, the horses and other domestic animals were transported from the great Europe to America. The horses were introduced to the Indians and it formed part of their culture. Asian mainly used the domesticated plants for food while improving hunting, and keeping the animal as the nomadic lifestyle. Tobacco is one of the crops introduced in India that led to the native people adopting smoking culture.

Introduction of Slave Trade

The voyage furthermore leads to an introduction of certain diseases such as Yellow Fever, Smallpox, and Malaria as 90% of the inhabitants died of the illness. The diseases interfered with Indians as they grew weak with time and thus, did not provide useful labor as required to work on plantations. The Spanish empire had to find a solution to this and decided to import slave from Africa thus, leading to slave trade.

Christopher Columbus as either a Hero or a Villain

Overall evaluation of Christopher Columbus’s contribution towards the history of America exhibits an influential personality. Though the sailor claims to have discovered the native land first in history, indigenous people were living in the land.

Conclusion

A conclusive research shows that Christopher Columbus helped the Spanish kingdom to discover and explore the new lands of America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The Voyage of Columbus around the world increased slave trade that depopulated Africa, enhanced spread of Christianity by European missionaries. Besides, Asians embraced trade and other products like tobacco. The act of heroism can therefore be seen in Columbus.

 

 

 

The Impact of Columbus’ Discovery. Part I

The history of the American discovery is closely associated with the voyage of Christopher Columbus. Renowned Spanish of his time, Columbus remains important in as far as the immigration into America is concerned. His role in slavery, colonization and the subject of native Indians in America attracted mixed reactions from the historians. While one faction sees him as a villain, others note heroism. At the prime of his voyage career, the Spanish empire extended the rule of its power, influence, and wealth throughout the world from the late fifteenth through the seventeenth century. Columbus conducted a successful expedition of overseas expansion in the reign of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.

American indigenous population predominantly Indians, was the first group that felt the actions of Columbus. It is worth noting that through the introduction of Columbian Exchange, cultural changes emerged coupled with loss of land belonging to the Native Americans. Economic patterns of America took a turn from 15th century as wealth began to grow. However, the impact of Christopher Columbus cut across continents as felt in America, Asia, Europe as well as Africa.

The Reaction of Columbus and His Crew on Arrival to the New Lands

On arrival in America, Columbus and his voyage crew interacted with the native people of America and initiated conversion to Christianity. In his first journal, the untold story (2012), Columbus distinctively expresses thoughts that the Americans, Asians and Africans only needed to be changed from their indigenous religion and be forced to accept Christianity. Columbus and the Crew further recommended enslavement of the local communities to serve the interest of the Spanish monarchy under the guise of religious doctrine of obedience to God. Besides, subsequent fights with other European colonies and displacement of native America tribal kingdoms enlisted the help of co-operative indigenous people.

The Lifestyle of the Native People

The voyage encountered diverse mix of tribes in their different socio-economic structures. A tribe notably mentioned by Columbus was the Indians. These people were a combination of different sub -tribes, and they spanned the island of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In the Bahamas, the crew also came across Tainos. This culture constituted Eastern, Western and Classic Tainos. Basing on the recent findings, Columbus Journal (2014), the natives were spread all over in both small and large troops of Caribbean with the Tainos dominating the landscape.

The sailor also noted the uniqueness of culture of the American people. For instance, the classic Tainos were exceptional tribe that relied on agriculture, hunting and fishing. In Cuba, Hispanics and Puerto Rico, the crew realized that the Chiefs were governing the villages. The role of the leader was to oversee the political and social functions of the community. There was no gender disparity as both women and men were eligible for the position of becoming the area chief. Few villages grouped together to form one loosely organized district governed by one of the community leaders. The current political system of the United States is comparable to the Taino government structure of that time.

 

A Modest Proposal

“A Modest Proposal,” is a Juvenilia sarcastic essay published incognito by Jonathan Swift in 1729. He suggests that the poor Irish might simplify their economic difficulties by offering their infants as food for rich ladies and gentlemen. This satirical exaggeration mocks the attitude of the heartless to the poor and also the British policy toward Ireland in general. The key tenacity of using satire is to make the readers create solutions to the issue under discussion (Johnson)

In the article, the author has employed pathos has a way to convince his audience. In applying pathos, he used the article to catch attention to the kind of abuses that were inflicted on Irish Catholics by the wealthy English Protestants. He held the opinion that England was oppressing and exploiting Ireland. Most of Irishmen worked in ranches belonging to Englishmen who charged rents that were unaffordable to many Irish. Therefore, many families who were farmers were almost living in starvation. He also assumes the persona of a disturbed economist who proposes that, for Ireland to combat the overpopulation and poverty, the poor should sell their children to the wealthy as food. He adds that selling children as food will reduce not only the population but also increase the income for the poor. In coming up with this offensive thesis, Swift offers full detail, projecting the costs of rearing a child, approximating the affected portion of the population, and even providing definite ideas concerning the number of pieces a child can provide. During this article, Swift’s satire counts on the character of the economist, an apparently well-meaning idealistic whose sympathy for the poor causes him to suggest a remedy of brutal cruelty. His opinions, rationally offered, support a profoundly irrational proposition, and their shocking callousness fundamentally challenges their compassionate intention.

Regarding this article, critical evaluations of another author’s work can be used in future in that it gives guidelines on how to use satire and the different modes of persuasion in passing critical information when writing articles.

 

Lauri Lebo’s Conclusions about the Validity of Intelligent Design

The case “God and Darwin” focuses on the challenge that emanates from a balanced coverage of a court case whereby the trial is about science. Lauri Lebo argues the presence of scientific flaws following a story she covered. The case Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District involved a school board against 11 parents. The parents went to court as the ninth graders were required to read a statement that included evolution among the theories with intelligent design. The intelligent design embodies explanations of the development of earth and origin of life (Lancaster 29). It is not the duty of Lebo to be objective as she has to give credibility of the competing scientific theories. For this reason, she had to do more in-depth coverage and show the difference between the editor’s standpoint and her own. The editors were concerned about the beliefs of the community they served which led them to have a different perspective as Laura Lebo. Reporters are expected to give their standpoints for the two parties at trial. Hence, Lebo was qualified to insert her views and conclusions to the coverage.

Lebo’s Options Regarding Behe’s Testimony

While giving his testimony, Behe conceded under cross-examination by giving irreducible complexity examples. The words by Behe cannot be mistaken for a conclusion that the evolution mechanisms have led to irreducible complexity. Despite conceding under cross-examination, the evolution mechanisms have partially tried to give explanations regarding irreducible complexity concerning exaptation. Behe never mentioned that irreducible complexity was attributable to exaptation as he comes out, in the end, showing skepticism towards exaptation as a variable. Further, exaptation is dominated by speculation and cannot be subject to testing which brings forth his standpoint that exaptation cannot be unfalsified (Sulloway 182). Lebo’s viewpoint lies mainly on the bias present in science, but Behe does not come to a definite conclusion as there is a gap which emanates from the inability to falsify exaptation. For this reason, Laura Lebo owes the defense the same benefit of doubt that the judge does. Behe failed to mention if exaptation was a known process and, thus, we cannot conclude that it results in building complex systems.

Stakes of the York Daily Regarding Intelligent Design

The primary concern about the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District case was whether the York Daily would treat intelligent design equal to evolution or not. The perception of the readers of the York Daily would determine the stakes of the readership company.  If the York Daily considers the intelligent design equal to evolution, religious leaders will view the company as biased. Ultimately, a section of the readers comprising mainly of religious people would be alienated affecting the readership of the media house reports. On the other hand, not treating intelligent design equal to evolution means there would be a controversy (Cleaves 32). Lebo afterward accepted intelligent design to be taught in school to ensure fairness of competing theories. Lebo’s standpoint at the end was different from that which she held in the beginning. Thus, the failure of the York Daily to consider intelligent design equal to evolution even after the reporter covering the story had come to terms with the findings would mean otherwise. Therefore, for the purpose of student’s biology education, intelligent design should be considered equal to evolution.

 

Literary analysis: The Theme of Inequality and Racism in ‘Again, the Fields’

In the poem, the author portrays the political situation after the Civil War of 1865, the first war in the United States of America in which there was an official issue by the Union Army to call African Americans to war. In the first stanza, the author emphasizes the end of the war by stating,’ no more muskets, the bone drag weariness..’ . However, she mentions the lives lost in the war suggesting that the earth has turned red due to the soaking up of blood. By saying that the red was as though it was the color of the wine of sacrament, it is as though the lives lost in the war were a sacrifice for the greater good. In a way, the sacrifice was for the greater good which was the founding of a better republic, a new America. She expresses the achievement in the second stanza, as the veteran turns towards new fields. The new fields are symbolic of the new republic, the new America.

The veteran is trying to start a new. The reminders of the past which are symbolic of the jacket and the canteen which he used as a soldier he throws to the ground, forgotten at the corner of the painting. He cuts the wheat, a crop known for its bountifulness in America. In fact, it is grown in almost every state. The cutting of the wheat shows the bountiful nature of the crop and the veteran’s access to it shows the reward that he receives after the war is done. She goes on to describe the wheat, in its rows and rows. The use of the word swaths emphasizes how large an area the wheat has covered. It is boundless, never-ending in sight. In the last stanza, however, the crop switches from wheat to cotton. Cotton is symbolic in this situation in that it played and still does play a significant role in the economy. However, cotton is a crop synonymous with slavery and the fight for equality in the United States. African Americans worked in cotton fields. Later when they owned the fields, they had to fight still to keep their lands and sell their crop reasonably.

In a way, the author alludes towards the existence of resentment towards African Americans even after they had proved themselves in the war. Here the poem points out that the sacrifice face made by both races of soldiers might only have been to the right of the white people in the country. The African American even after proving their skill and courage in the war are still faced with a long way to go, a long way to fight for their freedom. The author points out that they are two veterans. The other veteran whose hands are the color of dark soil is the one that is in the field of cotton. The immensity of the work ahead of the African American veteran is seen when she says,’ where sky and cotton meet.’ The fields of cotton are immense and stretch out to inconceivable proportions.

The Theme of Inequality and Racism

The issue of racism is seen clearly in the poem if one considers the history behind the piece. The point of the Civil War that occurred between 1881 and 1885 was to accomplish the forming of a new America (Trudeau 18). The two fighting parties had different ideologies. Most importantly the Union Army did not agree with the use of slavery in the United States to achieve economic growth. However, they did not use African Americans in the war from the beginning. In a way, they still considered them cowardly and redundant. Though they were fighting towards the end of slavery, they still believed that African Americans could not assist in fighting for their freedom. But in the end both parties lost lives, so much blood was spilled blood that soaked the earth red. Death was everywhere.

Again, in the poem the differences between the veterans are drawn out. The veteran whose skin is white is in a field that is bountiful. The field that is full of wheat which is a crop that is considered to be a symbol of redemption and hope.  After the war ends the white veteran as hope. His sacrifices were not for nothing. He can put the past behind him and look forward to the bountiful future. The white man by harvesting the wheat using the scythe has access to these opportunities. The white man has endless opportunities with no obstacle standing in his way.

On the other hand, the veteran whose hands are the color of dark soil is in the field of cotton. The author draws out the lack of opportunities for the African American. He is surrounded by the slavery that he fought so hard to end. Though nobody may be torturing him directly, he has so much to do so as to achieve his freedom. And his freedom will not be reached shortly. It is nowhere in sight. The only thing that the two veterans have in common is that they are on the field by themselves. The benefits of the white man are to him alone. The heavy burdens of fighting against slavery for the African American are to be fought by him alone. The white man has achieved his harvest. He has won the war and will no longer assist the fight for the abolition of slavery.

The issue of inequality is drawn out in that same way. Both parties fought in the same war. After the war, they wanted a new life. They wanted new beginnings. But for the man whose hands are the color of the dark soil, everything has stayed the same. The white man has been offered rewards while he is offered nothing. Even at war, the African American man was offered 3 dollars less than the white soldier even though they were fighting together. They were still segregated into groups with people of the same color. Even in the death of the 40,000 African Americans that dies only 10,000 died in battle. The facilities offered to the Native American soldiers exposed them to infection. They had no fighting chance.

In conclusion, the author draws out the ills of racism in society and the inequality that exists throughout the poem. Both parties are veterans of the same war but are not offered the same courtesies. The reason for the difference is because one is white and the other has dark skin.