The Impact of Columbus’ Discovery. Part II

Colonization

The explorer’s discovery of the native land with arable opportunities affected the locals by being governed by the foreign authorities. Many students ask ‘can someone write my essay‘ about colonization many times a day. And it is a fact. Europe is one continent that felt this era as Spanish monarchy began taking lands, farming and establishing foreign administration on the natives. In fact, after the discovery of new lands, Columbus requested the government of Spanish to establish a colony so as to benefit from the slave trade and agriculture. In that respect, the Africans and Native Americans were put into slavery to supply much needed labor.

Economic Growth

There was arable land with ample amount of vast opportunities for agriculture, and this stimulated profitable agricultural endeavors that increased wealth of immigrant in America. The rich individuals could buy slaves from Spanish and use them to expand their farming activities.

Cultural Exchange

Columbus provided an opportunity for People longing for the vast prospects in the new land. The result was displacement of red Indians as European, Asian, and African immigrants completely changed the lifestyles of New America. Another consequence of Columbus’ discovery was the introduction of a new culture in America influenced by intermarriage between the Europeans and the red Indians.

 Columbian Exchange

The global exchange of goods, people, plants, and diseases besides ideas constituted Columbian exchange. Christopher Columbus journey exposed the new world in his voyage job.

With time as the Spanish empire and European interest in America expanded, the horses and other domestic animals were transported from the great Europe to America. The horses were introduced to the Indians and it formed part of their culture. Asian mainly used the domesticated plants for food while improving hunting, and keeping the animal as the nomadic lifestyle. Tobacco is one of the crops introduced in India that led to the native people adopting smoking culture.

Introduction of Slave Trade

The voyage furthermore leads to an introduction of certain diseases such as Yellow Fever, Smallpox, and Malaria as 90% of the inhabitants died of the illness. The diseases interfered with Indians as they grew weak with time and thus, did not provide useful labor as required to work on plantations. The Spanish empire had to find a solution to this and decided to import slave from Africa thus, leading to slave trade.

Christopher Columbus as either a Hero or a Villain

Overall evaluation of Christopher Columbus’s contribution towards the history of America exhibits an influential personality. Though the sailor claims to have discovered the native land first in history, indigenous people were living in the land.

Conclusion

A conclusive research shows that Christopher Columbus helped the Spanish kingdom to discover and explore the new lands of America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The Voyage of Columbus around the world increased slave trade that depopulated Africa, enhanced spread of Christianity by European missionaries. Besides, Asians embraced trade and other products like tobacco. The act of heroism can therefore be seen in Columbus.

 

 

 

The Impact of Columbus’ Discovery. Part I

The history of the American discovery is closely associated with the voyage of Christopher Columbus. Renowned Spanish of his time, Columbus remains important in as far as the immigration into America is concerned. His role in slavery, colonization and the subject of native Indians in America attracted mixed reactions from the historians. While one faction sees him as a villain, others note heroism. At the prime of his voyage career, the Spanish empire extended the rule of its power, influence, and wealth throughout the world from the late fifteenth through the seventeenth century. Columbus conducted a successful expedition of overseas expansion in the reign of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.

American indigenous population predominantly Indians, was the first group that felt the actions of Columbus. It is worth noting that through the introduction of Columbian Exchange, cultural changes emerged coupled with loss of land belonging to the Native Americans. Economic patterns of America took a turn from 15th century as wealth began to grow. However, the impact of Christopher Columbus cut across continents as felt in America, Asia, Europe as well as Africa.

The Reaction of Columbus and His Crew on Arrival to the New Lands

On arrival in America, Columbus and his voyage crew interacted with the native people of America and initiated conversion to Christianity. In his first journal, the untold story (2012), Columbus distinctively expresses thoughts that the Americans, Asians and Africans only needed to be changed from their indigenous religion and be forced to accept Christianity. Columbus and the Crew further recommended enslavement of the local communities to serve the interest of the Spanish monarchy under the guise of religious doctrine of obedience to God. Besides, subsequent fights with other European colonies and displacement of native America tribal kingdoms enlisted the help of co-operative indigenous people.

The Lifestyle of the Native People

The voyage encountered diverse mix of tribes in their different socio-economic structures. A tribe notably mentioned by Columbus was the Indians. These people were a combination of different sub -tribes, and they spanned the island of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In the Bahamas, the crew also came across Tainos. This culture constituted Eastern, Western and Classic Tainos. Basing on the recent findings, Columbus Journal (2014), the natives were spread all over in both small and large troops of Caribbean with the Tainos dominating the landscape.

The sailor also noted the uniqueness of culture of the American people. For instance, the classic Tainos were exceptional tribe that relied on agriculture, hunting and fishing. In Cuba, Hispanics and Puerto Rico, the crew realized that the Chiefs were governing the villages. The role of the leader was to oversee the political and social functions of the community. There was no gender disparity as both women and men were eligible for the position of becoming the area chief. Few villages grouped together to form one loosely organized district governed by one of the community leaders. The current political system of the United States is comparable to the Taino government structure of that time.

 

Lauri Lebo’s Conclusions about the Validity of Intelligent Design

The case “God and Darwin” focuses on the challenge that emanates from a balanced coverage of a court case whereby the trial is about science. Lauri Lebo argues the presence of scientific flaws following a story she covered. The case Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District involved a school board against 11 parents. The parents went to court as the ninth graders were required to read a statement that included evolution among the theories with intelligent design. The intelligent design embodies explanations of the development of earth and origin of life (Lancaster 29). It is not the duty of Lebo to be objective as she has to give credibility of the competing scientific theories. For this reason, she had to do more in-depth coverage and show the difference between the editor’s standpoint and her own. The editors were concerned about the beliefs of the community they served which led them to have a different perspective as Laura Lebo. Reporters are expected to give their standpoints for the two parties at trial. Hence, Lebo was qualified to insert her views and conclusions to the coverage.

Lebo’s Options Regarding Behe’s Testimony

While giving his testimony, Behe conceded under cross-examination by giving irreducible complexity examples. The words by Behe cannot be mistaken for a conclusion that the evolution mechanisms have led to irreducible complexity. Despite conceding under cross-examination, the evolution mechanisms have partially tried to give explanations regarding irreducible complexity concerning exaptation. Behe never mentioned that irreducible complexity was attributable to exaptation as he comes out, in the end, showing skepticism towards exaptation as a variable. Further, exaptation is dominated by speculation and cannot be subject to testing which brings forth his standpoint that exaptation cannot be unfalsified (Sulloway 182). Lebo’s viewpoint lies mainly on the bias present in science, but Behe does not come to a definite conclusion as there is a gap which emanates from the inability to falsify exaptation. For this reason, Laura Lebo owes the defense the same benefit of doubt that the judge does. Behe failed to mention if exaptation was a known process and, thus, we cannot conclude that it results in building complex systems.

Stakes of the York Daily Regarding Intelligent Design

The primary concern about the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District case was whether the York Daily would treat intelligent design equal to evolution or not. The perception of the readers of the York Daily would determine the stakes of the readership company.  If the York Daily considers the intelligent design equal to evolution, religious leaders will view the company as biased. Ultimately, a section of the readers comprising mainly of religious people would be alienated affecting the readership of the media house reports. On the other hand, not treating intelligent design equal to evolution means there would be a controversy (Cleaves 32). Lebo afterward accepted intelligent design to be taught in school to ensure fairness of competing theories. Lebo’s standpoint at the end was different from that which she held in the beginning. Thus, the failure of the York Daily to consider intelligent design equal to evolution even after the reporter covering the story had come to terms with the findings would mean otherwise. Therefore, for the purpose of student’s biology education, intelligent design should be considered equal to evolution.